Marital Power U.S.” discuss describe advantages disadvantages married U.S. How role gender plays Education, Earned Income, (Professional: Occupational / Title) Does wage difference explains subordination home ? discriminating women, Is a systematic pattern dominates women men?( include race differences describing discrimination) Does domination public sector private sector? How ? Include discussions couples inherited wealth powerful status divorce rates types marriages average married couples? type family formation pattern affects continues future generations (children involved type families).
Marital power in the U.S.
Advantages and disadvantages of being married in the U.S.
Marriage is a wonderful union of two people who are bonded in love. One advantage of marriage is that it gives the two people in love the ability to love and to be loved in return. Marriage gives the two people an avenue to channel their love and attention towards a greater feeling. A second advantage of marriage is that it creates the necessary balance for the upbringing of children. Through marriage, the child has a balanced family with a father and a mother and it makes bringing up the baby easier. Marriage also has the advantage of providing a companion for a person with who they can share stories, experiences and grow old together. Another advantage of marriage is that it teaches the two people in the union to be tolerant, caring and unselfish. It also allows them to share the challenges, rewards, and sorrows of their lives.
Marriage also has disadvantages. The first disadvantage is that it limits a person to having to consider the opinion and thoughts of another in their everyday lives at all times. Therefore a person is less likely to make decisions regarding spending their own money or time on their own. Marriage also brings about sacrifices and compromises that a person may not be willing to undertake such as having to live with in-laws.
How the role of gender plays out in marriage
Each gender has had its own behaviors, attitudes, and values which influence their role in marriage. Gender roles affect the quality of a marriage and traditionally, the role of the man has been that of bread winning while the wife plays the role of being the homemaker and does not work outside the home. The level of education and incomes affect the role of each gender in the marriage. For women, societal expectations have changed from the time when they were regarded as housewives to allowing them to pursue education and careers. When women become educated and successful in their careers, they tend to spend less time fulfilling their traditional role in marriage of taking care of the family and children. However, for educated men who are successful in their careers, they find it easier to fulfill their traditional role of being breadwinners since they earn a higher salary.
Explanation of subordination within the home
Subordination within the home has always been as a result of the traditional role of women as the lesser sex in the marriage. The traditional role of women came about as a result of the physical and social infrastructure that led to women not attaining high levels of education thus preventing them from pursuing careers. Scholars argued that this wage gap led to subordination of women in the home. However, over the years, this situation has changed as a result of globalization which has reduced the wage gap between men and women in contemporary marriages but the subordination of women still remains as it was. Therefore, it can be seen that wage differences do not lead to subordination in marriage rather subordination results from the traditional role of women as the lesser sex in marriage.
Pattern of domination of women by men
The pattern of domination of women by men suggests that subordination differs by race, class and ethnicity of the partners in the marriage. Bednarek (1998)
argues that these traits that cause differences in patterns of domination of women are only relevant because they influence their social ranking. They thus observed that women of color are often subordinated in marriage as a result of their race, class, and ethnicity which suggests a structural or socially patterned nature of domination. This domination of women by men creates disadvantages for women but at the same time provides unacknowledged benefits for who are not dominated. Women of color are often oppressed in society and there is a systemic level of social institutions that creates a level of cultural context that is based on race, class and ethnicity upon which the women are discriminated. Women of color are also subjected to systematic attacks on the forms and institutions of social organizations which are integral in the maintenance and flourishing of the group’s culture.
Domination of women by men comes from both the public and private sectors but majorly from the private sector. This is because women experience more discrimination in the private sectors than public sectors as a result of stereotyping that leads to prejudice. Prejudice creates a barrier to a person’s information processing that creates a bias for unconsciously basing arguments on cognitive shortcuts. In the private sector, women of color have been known to have less chances of employment or career development which leads to increased domination in the home.
Divorce rates in the U.S. have been on the rise over the years from 29% in the year 2002 to about 40-50% in 2012. The last survey data on divorce rates was collected in 2002 with the 2012 findings being forecasts from the 2002 results. A study conducted in 2001 found that there is a correlation between frequency of sex, race, wealth, and religious commitment with divorce PolitiFact, 2012.
From this study results, a conclusion can be drawn that for couples who have inherited wealth or power, the divorce rate is slightly higher than for couples who have not inherited wealth or power. The study found that power and wealth make the couples not to change which leads to increased issues in marriage which lead to increased chance of divorce. For average couples, the divorce rate is lower compared to that of couples who have inherited wealth and power Strong, DeVault, & Cohen, 2011.
Davies and Cummings (1994)
state that wealth and power are highly addictive and for those who have it, they find happiness and solace in their wealth. However, they do not get satisfied with wealth and power and thus strive to acquire more. Furthermore, they are unable to do without wealth and power since this withdrawal causes them to panic and behave in socially unacceptable ways. It is thus hard for those who have inherited wealth and power to adjust to the marriage scenario leading to the high divorce rate.
Family formation patterns
There are two major patterns of family formation. The first is marriage and the second is childbearing. Over the years, child bearing has been the more popular pattern of family formation as a result of marriage being more of an economic statement or a status quo than a family formation pattern. Research has shown that there are four factors that correlate with the patterns of family formation and changes in this pattern. These four factors are education, institutional aspect, women labor force participation and attitude. These factors influence the adoption of family formation patterns by couples. Research has also shown that there is a generational pattern of family formation patterns. This means that for children whose parents chose marriage as the family formation pattern, the children are more likely to adopt this family formation pattern. The same goes for parents who used child bearing as the family formation pattern Kerckhoff, 1976()
Bednarek, L.B. (1998). The Gender Wage Gap: Searching for Equality in a Global Economy. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 6(1), 213-236.
Davies, P.T., & Cummings, E.M. (1994). Marital Conflict and Child Adjustment: An Emotional Security Hypothesis. American Psychological Association Psychological Bulletin, 116, 387-411.
Kerckhoff, A.C. (1976). Patterns of Marriage and Family Formation and Dissolution. Journal of Consumer Research, 2(4), 261-275.
PolitiFact. (2012). Steve Sweeney claims two-thirds of marriages end in divorce, from http://www.politifact.com/new-jersey/statements/2012/feb/20/stephen-sweeney/steve-sweeney-claims-more-two-thirds-marriages-end/
Strong, B., DeVault, C., & Cohen, T.F. (2011). The Marriage and Family Experience: Intimate Relationships in a Changing Society. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
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