Against Affirmative Action Essay

Against Affirmative Action


Thirty-eight years ago, there was discrimination occurring in America that made it necessary for our government to create and enforce a law called Affirmative Action.  Although this was a positive intervention at the time, Affirmative Action is no longer necessary today.


Affirmative action is any plan or program that promotes the employment of women and members of any minority group (Britannica 172).  This term, first used by President John F. Kennedy, is an action taken to remedy the effects and specifically end job and college entrance discrimination (Neiss 244).  In nineteen sixty-four, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of nineteen sixty-four which made job discrimination illegal and really began to push Kennedy’s affirmative action.  When President Richard M. Nixon took office, he became the first to implement federal policies designed to guarantee minority hiring.


Over the years, there have been two significant court cases involving affirmative action.  The first case occurred during the nineteen-seventies.  A young man named Allan Bakke; who applied twice to the University of California medical school, was rejected in the result of affirmative action policies both years.  Bakke took his case to the Supreme Court, and in nineteen seventy-eight, the court ruled in his favor.  Allan Bakke’s case resulted in an established affirmative action quota in colleges, and he was also admitted into the University of California medical school.


The second significant court case involving affirmative action occurred more recently.  In nineteen ninety-six, a forty-three-year-old mother named Barbara Grutter applied to the University of Michigan law school.  Grutter was not admitted into the school based on its racial preferences.  The following year in nineteen ninety-seven, two other white students with good grades and high SAT scores were also denied admission at the University of Michigan.  All three students took their case against the University of Michigan to the Supreme Court as Allan Bakke had done nearly twenty years before.  President George W. Bush has expressed that he disagrees with affirmative action policy and that if the court rules in favor of Grutter, affirmative action policies may change throughout the country.  If the nine justices strike down the use of race as a factor in admission at the University of Michigan, there will be far less racial diversity at the best-known colleges in the United States.


Affirmative action has been controversial since its beginning.  Arguments against Affirmative action can basically be divided into two categories.  The first is a category of arguments that oppose Affirmative action policies on moral principle.  The second is a category of arguments based on the bad consequences of Affirmative action.  Supporters of affirmative action say that these policies are the only way to create an integrated society in which the whole population has an equal opportunity to share in education, jobs, and other benefits (Gutmann 23).


According to Lino A. Graglia, who is a professor at the University of Texas at Austin, black high-school seniors, on average, have a combined SAT score about two-hundred points lower than that of white high-school seniors.


In nineteen ninety-six, the American Lawyer reported that only forty-five Hispanic students and sixteen black students in the country had an LSAT score at or above the 92nd percentile and a grade-point average of 3.5 or better—scores good enough for admission to three-quarters of the nation’s law schools, but below the mean scores of the students admitted to the nation’s seven or so most selective schools, including Michigan.

Minority applicants cannot be considered in competition with white and Asian applicants if they are to make up at least five to ten percent- the usual objective- of the entering class of selective colleges and universities.  Therefore, at the University of Michigan Law School, for example, black students are basically admitted automatically even with scores lower than those with which white and Asian students are automatically rejected.  If each applicant had an A average, a white applicant would have to score at the 96th percentile to have a chance of admission equal to that of a black applicant scoring at the 70th percentile (Graglia 7).  Altogether, race-based preference creates reverse discrimination.


Although affirmative action has a positive-sounding label, it has resulted in negative actions.  Instead of considering the qualifications of all candidates, without racial considerations, affirmative action favors selected races and, thus, bias the outcome.  Race-based policies should be abolished in America.  Both minorities and Caucasians have the same opportunity to learn, whether or not they take advantage of it.  Because of affirmative action, minorities can never know if they were accepted to universities or hired for jobs because of their qualifications or ethnicity.  This also holds true for Caucasians who are rejected.


The problem with this policy is that it assumes black students cannot be expected to meet requirements applicable to others, and therefore may be exempted from them.  Is this really the long term solution for achieving racial equality?


Affirmative action hurts dignity.  When universities use race-based admission systems, they minimize the achievements of Hispanics and blacks who do not need special treatment to be admitted to college.  Weighing skin color over standardized test scores does not make sense.  When any student is admitted to a college with less-than-average marks, they are less likely to succeed incompetency with other students.


It has been forty years since affirmative action was implemented here in America.  The outdated law was originally a temporary measure that is now doing our country more harm than good.  Systematic discrimination is not likely to have affected an eighteen-year-old in his/her lifetime to justify systematic discrimination in his/her favor.  Affirmative action policies benefit individuals who have not suffered discrimination and burdens individuals who have not participated in discrimination.  Turning the tables on previously favored groups is as unjust as the original discrimination.  Relatively higher dropout rates of minorities from colleges and universities is due to affirmative action policies that place students at more competitive colleges than they can handle (Clegg 4).


Why is the only relevant discrimination to consider the discrimination that occurred in the United States? Blacks, Hispanics, Jews, Asians, American Indians, and Americans of Irish, Italian, Polish, and German origin have all been subjected to discrimination at one time or another in the United States.  Why does affirmative action only apply to a couple of these groups?


America is supposed to be the land of “equal opportunity.” Why create unnecessary resentment when we can learn to live together in harmony and respect? Affirmative action recreates the very problem it is supposed to solve: discrimination. Affirmative action should be outlawed.  Although affirmative action was a brilliant idea thirty years ago and a positive intervention at the time, it is no longer necessary today.






Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper