Classical Conditioning Article Review


Classical Conditioning Article Review

A lot of scientific research is dedicated to examining the relationships that exist between delinquency and poor school performance. The direction of the connection between juvenile delinquency and education is significantly complex. Early expression of aggressive behavior may lead to problems in the classroom. These problems, in turn, may result to further result in more challenges with the child receiving evaluations that are unfavorable from peers and teachers. Poor evaluation may lead to the development of delinquency. Similarly, delinquent could be a manifestation of other characteristics that got the child in poor view of the school authorities (Arum & Beattie, 1999).

A number of studies indicate that cases of delinquent behavior decrease in cases where the child or teenager drops out of school. Other studies indicate that delinquent behavior increases significantly following dropping out of the school of the affected child. Furthermore, numerous studies point out that child and family traits predict both the increased chances of delinquent behaviors and problems in school (Bastian & Taylor, 1991).

Despite the continuous debates of the causality direction, the evidence is present that indicates truancy, poor performance in school and rejecting school at a juvenile age are related to traits associated with juvenile delinquency. A number of factors associated with aggression, delinquency, and violence have been examined and identified, for instance, studies carried out in the area point out that reading and verbal deficits are connected to victimization of the children or teenagers in school and outside school, drug use, delinquent behavior, and aggression when students falling behind of school work and reading become marginalized as failures (Arbuthnot & Gordon, 1986).

Failure at school undermines the interest of a student in and their commitment to learning and school. Delinquent peer associations may also result from school failure when students come to reject prosocial behavior and academic achievement as legitimate values and goals. Student’s perception that she or he is not getting enough support and care from adults and feeling of isolation may also play an essential function in the etiology of aggressive and delinquent behaviors (Arbuthnot & Gordon, 1986).

This essay, therefore, will operationalize the two variables in question- that is, delinquency and academic performance, and solidify a number of research questions concerning the issue so as to pave a way for a formal literature review.


Delinquency is the first variable the paper will examine. One can define delinquency, as participation is behavior that is illegal or unpleasing by minors who fall under the age limits set by the state. Delinquency is also defined as the neglect of or failure in obligation or duty, it is behavior that is wrong, antisocial or illegal (Siegel & Welsh, 2011). It is a failure to do what duty or the law expects. Most cultures have a transition phase to adulthood from childhood. However, this phase has been changing as the child changes. This stage is what is called adolescence and most children have difficulties while transiting into adulthood through this phase. The transition is seen as a difficult phase that leaves many children in a limbo where they have to find out and define their place in the world and identify. In most cases, these children turn to delinquency to supply them with a method to attain this realization (Zigler et al., 1992).

Synonyms to delinquency

Antisocial behavior, unlawfulness, rule-breaking, misbehavior, criminal behavior, negligence, wrongdoing, crime or felony, among others.

Academic Performance

The other variable of importance is academic performance. Academic performance can be utilized to mean to the means students accomplish or cope with different activities assigned to them by their educators and the way they deal with their education. Academic performance also means the ability a student has to remember and study facts and be able to communicate what they have learned on a paper or verbally (Ward et al., 1996). Academic performance is the result or outcome of learning or education- or the levels to which a teacher, student or institution has attained their goals in education. One can measure academic performance by means of continuous assessments and examinations but there is no one way of how achievement in education is best tested or which factors are most crucial- declarative knowledge like facts or procedural knowledge like skills (Stumm et al., 2011).

Synonyms to Academic Achievement

Academic achievement is also referred to as academic performance, school success, school attendance, and school performance, among others.

Research Questions

Literature reviews about any particular topic cannot be carried out without the appropriate questions. As it follows, this essay will propose a set of questions that the literature review will seek to answer. The research questions mainly enquire about the relationships that exist between the two variables.

  1. How do delinquency and academic performance relate? How do these two variables affect or influence each other for students in, for example, a private and Catholic university?
  2. Do those students involved in delinquent behavior perform poorly than those students who are well- behaved?
  3. How are the perceptions of school authorities and peers of students involved in delinquent behavior? do their perceptions affect the academic achievement of delinquent students?
To answer these questions, the paper will use a hypothesis for each question.
  1. Students who engage more in delinquent behavior perform poorly in school.
  2. Students involved in delinquent behavior perform poorly than those who do not.
  3. School authorities and peers marginalize students engaged in delinquent behaviors as failures.
These are the main questions of the research paper, but they will also be supported by a few minor questions.
  1. Do college-going males participate more in delinquent behavior when compared to college- going females? Are there any certain classes where they perform better?
  2. Does gender have any influence on the relationship that occurs between academic performance and delinquency behavior on college- going students?
These also will be answered to support or disapprove the following hypothesis.
  1. Males participate more in delinquent behavior than female students do.
  2. Males will perform better overall in science and math.
  3. Males who engage in delinquent behavior perform poorly as compared to females who participate in the same behavior, but males will perform better if they do not participate in delinquent behavior. Therefore, gender is a moderator in the relationship between academic performance and delinquent behavior.



The research paper will make use of a number of measures. For delinquency, the measure to be used is the self- report scale of delinquency. For instance, the students will be asked to rate themselves on how much they participate in delinquent behavior. For the academic performance variable, the research paper will use the school emotional and behavioral scales as the measure. A sample item to be used in the research could inquire about how behavior and emotions interfere with academic work. In addition to this, the research paper will also inquire about the overall college GPA of the students and their weekly hours of study.



Arbuthnot, J. & Gordon, A. (1986). Behavioral and cognitive effects of a moral reasoning development intervention for high-risk behavior-disordered adolescents. Journal of        Counseling and Clinical Psychology 54:208-216.

Arum, R. & Beattie, A. (1999). High school experience and the risk of adult incarceration. Criminology 37(2): 515-537.

Bastian, D. & Taylor, M. (1991). School Crime: A National Crime Victimization Survey Report.              DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Siegel, J. & Welsh, B. (2011). Juvenile Delinquency: The Core. CA: Wadsworth.

Stumm, S. et al. (2011). The Hungry Mind: Intellectual Curiosity Is the Third Pillar of Academic             Performance. Perspective on Psychological Science 6(6): 574-588.

Ward, A. et al. (1996). Achievement and Ability Tests – Definition of the Domain. Educational             Measurement.

Zigler, E. et al. (1992). Early childhood intervention. A promising preventative for juvenile delinquency. Am Psychol. 47(8): 997-1006.


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