Ecology Experiment Simulation on two species


The world is full of various species whose life and survival depend on the physical environment and weather. Different species are adapted to different living conditions respectively. Some living organisms are adapted to live in hot and dry conditions while others can survive in extremely cold climatic conditions. This paper is a report based on lab experiments from a virtual field trip, specifically to the Scotland coast. The experiment involves the exploration of marine life along the coast. The aim is to experiment on Chthamalus and Semibalanus, which comprise of two kinds of barnacles. The report shows how the two species live and why they live in different depths characterized by different conditions.

The experiment has the tidal movement of seawater altering the water depth, as the control experiment. Low tides lead to the exposure of barnacles especially on the rock’s upper part to the air. It thus becomes difficult for the barnacles to endure on this rock’s upper part. It is also very challenging for the barnacles to be submerged within a long time under the water. This aspect shows that barnacles are affected negatively in extreme conditions. Competition is also another source of threat to their survival. In this case, a large barnacle could settle on top of another but stationary and adult barnacle or next to it reducing the chances of survival of the affected barnacle. Still, on their challenges, barnacles could result to the death of their neighbors through poisoning or any kind of fighting. All these challenges could be the key reason why there are two species of barnacles, as found on the simulated rock wall during the experiment. These two species are Chthamalus and Semibalanus, which live high on rocks and low down the rock, respectively (Velayudhan, 1987).

Research Questions

  1. What does the experiment establish about the differences between the two species of barnacles different with respect to where they live?
  1. What factors dictate their living environments?
  2. Why is there a difference in where each of the two species lives?

Research Objective

The study was conducted to find out how the two species of barnacles differ, where each of the species live, and the reason why each of the species lives in their respective environments under the respective conditions.


The hypotheses are based on the assumptions and facts made about each of the two species and why they live within their respective conditions. The hypotheses are made up of the null hypothesis for each species and an alternative hypothesis for each species as well. The hypotheses are as follows:

  1. H0: Both the Chthamalus species and the Semibalanus species live high on the rock within their entire reproductive age.
  2. H1: The two species, the Chthamalus species, and the Semibalanus species do not live high on the rock through their entire reproductive age.

The Experiment

The experiment was based on an actual field trip of exploring the marine life of Scotland’s coast. Along Scotland’s shore, it was expected that the research encounters a large rock’s side upon which Chthamalus and Semibalanus were to be found. Chthamalus and Semibalanus are the two species of barnacles to be studied through a simulated system, in which the water depth was bound to decrease whenever sea tides went out. The decrease in water depth leads to the exposure of barnacles found on the rock’s upper part, to the air. The barnacles on the lower section of the rock would alternatively be submerged for a long period before the low tides expose them to some favorable conditions such as light and air. In the experiment, it is could be established that the barnacles on the two sides face some level of extreme conditions, which place challenges to their healthy living.


The experiment results show that barnacles are faced with many challenges. These challenges affect the barnacles different given the fact that some barnacles would adjust to the prevailing harsh conditions while others would not survive such extreme conditions. Some barnacles would die during low tides after being exposed to the air for too long. Other barnacles would hardly survive in the low rock part where they face extreme conditions caused by being submerged for a very long time. This happens especially when the low tides can hardly reach the barnacles within the low part of the rock. Most of the barnacles would be concentrated within the part where extreme conditions hardly exist. This would often be the section between the high rock part and the low section of the rock. The way the barnacles exist depends on their ability to adapt to the two different conditions, which result from the water depth. The Semibalanus species was found to be living low down the rock while the Chthamalus species was found to be living high on the rock. In either case, the number of barnacles is found to be lowest in both extremes. This could be shown in the table below:

Table 1: Average weight and number of barnacles at different depths (Velayudhan, 1987)

Depth (m) Dominating Barnacle Species Average Weight of barnacle Number of barnacles Algae (as food) in grams/3200cm3
1 (High on the Rock) Chthamalus 26.70 149 1.09
2 (High on the Rock) Mostly Chthamalus 36.24 302 0.15
3 An almost equal number of the two species 34.03 346 0.01
4 (Down the Rock) Semibalanus 18.40 263
5 (Low down the Rock) Semibalanus 16.37 116


From the graph, the population of barnacles is least in both extremes but lowest towards the lower side of the rock. This would be affected by limited food due to cold conditions for the growth of food substances such as algae. At the highest side of the rock, drying out could be the main cause of the low population. Only a few surviving barnacles have adapted to these different conditions (Velayudhan, 1987).


Barnacles developed into two distinct species because of their lives in different living conditions. Environment plays a critical role in altering the genetic characteristics of organisms. An organism would adjust to its immediate environment in order to survive. This aspect applies to the barnacles as well, in which the barnacles living high on the rocks have to adapt in a way that would increase their chances of survival during periods of low tides. They develop genetic and physical traits that enable them to withstand the harsh conditions such as being exposed to the air when the tides are low (Velayudhan, 1987).

On the other hand, barnacles living low down the rock are forced by such environmental conditions to adjust to the extreme conditions of being submerged for long and having limited sources of air, sunlight, and warmth. The medium level of the rock seems to be the most suitable part with living conditions that would favor the two species. This part would in contrary be too congested to enhance a healthy survival. Due to increased completion in this part, barnacles tend to look for free space in the extreme sections (Velayudhan, 1987). The Chthamalus species would find it easier to live high on the rocks while the Semibalanus species would be adapted best to live low down the rock. These adaptations explain why the two species are different and live in different conditions within the rock.


Barnacles are marine crustaceans with feathery food-catching appendages. They free-swimming as larvae but their level of movement and survival are limited by the prevailing environmental conditions. They are faced with the need to change genetically if they have to survive the three major challenges they face during their life. These challenges include exposure to air during low tides, being submerged for too long and high survival competition. The high competition places pressure on the barnacle to move either high on the rock or low down the rock to enhance their survival chances. They are faced with different extreme conditions, which make them adapt accordingly in order to survive. These adjustments contribute to the formation of the two different species of barnacles. Those living low down the rock have shells that open for its feathery legs to filter water for food substances (Velayudhan, 1987).

Those living high on the rock have shells, which closes to hold water that protects them from drying out. The young ones are free and mobile, a factor that helps them to decide where they would live their adult life. Their choice would be controlled by the existing competition within their environments. From this aspect, it can be concluded that barnacles have their species determined by the prevailing environmental conditions, breading, and competition (Velayudhan, 1987). The alternative hypothesis that the two species, the Chthamalus species, and the Semibalanus species do not live high on the rock through their entire reproductive age is accepted. The null hypothesis that both the Chthamalus species and the Semibalanus species live high on the rock within their entire reproductive age is rejected.




Velayudhan, T. S. (1987). Studies on the Settlement of Barnacles at Different Depths in the Pearl oyster Farm at Tuticorin. CMFRI Bulletin, 42(2), 300-305.



Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper