Health Industry Practices that Create Conflicts

 

 

Peer Research Review

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Peer Research Review

Brennan, T. A., Rothman, D. J., Blank, L., Blumenthal, D., Chimonas, S. C., Cohen, J. J., & Smelser, N. (2006). Health Industry Practices that Create Conflicts of Interest: A Policy Proposal for Academic Medical Centers.Jama, 295(4), 429-433.

Conflicts of interest usually occurs between the doctors obligation towards the patients and the greed for drugs manufacturers. These companies, as well as their affiliates, usually struggle to market and sell their products due to the competitive nature of the pharmaceutical industry. As a result, this brings about numerous challenges to the medical practitioners codes of ethics. Such conflicts always arise when the health workers find themselves in situations where their moral obligations could be compromised. Even though the federal government, the physician groups, and the manufacturers have put in place self-regulating mechanisms in marketing, research into the science and psychology science indicates that the existing controls are not satisfactory to protect the interests of the patients. This research sought to study the available regulations and policies in different hospitals to establish which policy would be stringent enough to curb this menace in the health industry.

Bretz, R. D., Milkovich, G. T., & Read, W. (1992). The current state of performance appraisal research and practice: Concerns, directions, and implications.Journal of management,18(2), 321-352.

This team of researchers sought to study about the contemporary conditions of performance appraisal and the challenges that are encountered. They noted that from a superficial perspective, it is not quite ostensible how issues related to performance appraisal research have an impact on the performance appraisal practice. Since performance appraisal is a purely functional topic, quantitative analysis was necessary to carry out this research. The research team reviewed and examined the performance appraisal literature that were published between the year 1985 and 1990. This was in a bid to highlight the juxtaposition of practice and research. Their research suggests further direction for future studies.

Lingard, L., Albert, M., & Levinson, W. (2008). Grounded Theory, Mixed Methods, and Action Research. Bmj, 337(aug07_3), a567-a567.

Lingard, Albert, and Levinsons discussion on the Grounded Theory uses qualitative research to explain their perceptions. Qualitative methods usually encompass a wide array of procedural methodologies with varied disciplinary tools as well as origins. The authors discuss the Grounded Theory, developed by Glaser and Strauss, to generate theories about phenomena. This implies that they develop higher level of understanding that is derived from a systematic data analysis. They explain the key features of this theory and how it can be used in the research of social contacts that purposes to elaborate a procedure and not to test or verify a theory. Furthermore, the researchers have focused on the core principles of data analysis in the Grounded Theory and they concluded that the primary aspect should be a constant comparison of data.

Mercer, C. H., Fenton, K. A., Johnson, A. M., Wellings, K., Macdowall, W., McManus, S., & Erens, B. (2003). Sexual function problems and help seeking behaviour in Britain: national probability sample survey.Bmj, 327(7412), 426-427.

The need to establish the scope of sexual functionality issues amongst the majority populace has been a subject of numerous debates over the years. Also, there have been numerous arguments regarding the meaning of the term sexual dysfunction. Moreover, there have also been questions about the possible changes in peoples expectations, and the easy obtainability of pharmacological assistance. As a result, this team of researches chose to use a survey that comprised of 11,160 males and females of between 16-44 years old. The response rate from the subjects was 65.4% as interviews and questionnaires were used. The study sought to establish the clinical definition of dysfunction considering the extensive spectrum of sexual functionality complications in men and women.

Little, P., Everitt, H., Williamson, I., Warner, G., Moore, M., Gould, C., & Payne, S. (2001). Observational study of effect of patient centredness and positive approach on outcomes of general practice consultations. Bmj, 323(7318), 908-911.

Even though the conventional patient centered model of consulting a doctor is extensively endorsed, its applicability is believed to be somewhat limited. This group of researchers sought to examine the views of patients perceptions and the relationship between these perceptions and consequences. The research design that this team of researchers used was observational studies that encompassed the use of questionnaires. The participants involved in this research were 800 successive patients that were attending a doctor consultation session. The major outcomes of this research were the patients contentment, enablement, and the burden of the ailments. Through factor analysis, the researchers identified five constituents of patients views that can be examined reliably to predict different results.

Rodwin, M. A. (1993). Medicine, Money, and Morals: Physicians’ Conflicts of Interest. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rodwin undertook to study the physicians conflicts of interest, specifically, amongst the U.S medical community. Conflicts of interest are significantly rampant amongst the medical practitioners. He notes that it is uncommon for clinical officers as well as doctors to refer their patients to clinics or laboratories in which they directly have financial interest. In Medicine, Money, and Morals, Rodwin uses his own experience as a health lawyer as well as his previous research in health ethics, policy, and law to disclose how the financial conflicts of interest can negatively affect the healthcare quality. He affirms that this problem has turned out worse over the past decades. He goes ahead to give actual examples and cases of how the health practitioners decisions are immensely influenced by financial considerations. For instance, he uses qualitative methods and survey to show how two California physicians resumed referring patients to Pasadena General Hospital only after the management agreed to pay $70 per patient. Rodwin goes ahead to reveal that such incentives can inhibit a doctor in the public sector from taking any action when the hospital fails to provide quality services to the patients.

 

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