Options play a vital role in influencing decisions, which human beings make. This is what forms the basis of decisions, which human beings decide upon and they are of a rational nature. Most times, human beings are faced with challenges and they have to make decisions, which will benefit them. Processes of emotions also contribute to rationality and decision making. Often, decision making by individuals, occur when they are accorded with many alternatives and they have to choose. This is normally based upon their beliefs as well as preferences. The behavior, which human beings display, is as a result of the rational choices that they make. The latter is viewed as being a model that is extremely descriptive (Newell & Lagnado & Shanks, 2007. 33). Rational intently, is the word that describes people who engage in decision making. It must be known that at the same time, human beings are adaptive and also goal oriented in all their actions. The factors, which often make them not make decisions that are rational, are emotional architecture and human cognitive. The latter is often experienced when human beings are in a situation whereby, they have to make decisions, which are extremely vital.
Politics is an area where people have to constantly make decisions, which are rational. This is in accordance to a model that is utility classic expected. Evidence that supports this model is of a scientific nature. It has been proven through research, that decisions which are rational are not always possible. A person’s environment plays an essential role in determining whether people make decisions that are rational (Hastie & Dawes, 2001. 42). There is a misconception, which exists between the decision maker responsible for making choices and the environment where decision making occurs. A factor, which may take the form of incentives, can either be negative or positive and it affects decision making. The existence of techniques that are statistical as well as standardized, enable people to distinguish between factors, which are random, and those that are systematic. In turn, it is possible for rationality to be present in making decisions.
According to Jonathan Baron (2008. 65), when people are thinking, as is the norm, it is then referred to as rational. Later on, people will want to achieve their goals based on how it will benefit them most. Furthermore, he claims that goals, beliefs and decisions referred to the process of thinking. There are times when choices, which are subjective, and others that are irrational contribute to decisions making. In arguments that are irrational, an equation such as 1=0 is used as a justification. The equation means that through circular definition, rationality has influenced goal achievement. It is extremely illogical to think that irrational thinking leads to irrational goals.
Quality movement is due to the efforts of Edwards Ward (1954. 385). He also came up with the theory, which is today recognized in matters related to decision making. According to him, decision making is vital in any organization particularly people who are in positions of management. In many organizations, people often want to be identified by the decision, which they make. This means that before decisions are agreed upon, everyone’s opinion must be heard. Judgment is another issue, which is involved in influencing decision making. When goals are being established, judgments are made. The objectivity approach often fails based upon the judgments, which people make. Moral choices also influence rationality in terms of the goals, which people make. People are often influenced when they are thinking and this is based on ideals. Thus the theories by Ward are extremely useful in knowing about rational decision making by human beings.
Herbert Simon (1978. 12) gave his research concerning decision making and well as the process involved. Those in authority such as managers should solve problems and make decisions. Decision making involves designing actions, fixing agendas and setting goals. Later on, there has to be choosing and evaluating of the existing choices (Robbins, 2002. 23). Computers have now taken over the work human beings used to do. They make decisions based on the information they are provided with. The world is believed to be extremely uncertain and this is according to the theory of subjective expected. Human rationality has been experimented through various researches which are empirical. This is because it has the ability of solving problems as well as to make decisions (Mescon & Bovee, 2002. 36). During the beginning of the 21st century, the theory of SEU was extremely significant. It gave meaning to matters that are rational, and consistent. A function of utility was possessed by the person who makes the decisions. A logical order is followed in a process, which is cognitive that takes place in decision making that is rational. Options have to be weighed before a conclusion and result occurs. In conclusion, rationality is determined during decision making by the behavior, which human beings display.
Simon, H. Rationality as process and product of thought. American Economic Review, 68, 2, (1978): 1-16.
Baron, J. Chapter 3, Rationality, in Thinking and deciding (4th edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Print. 61 – 76.
Edwards, W. The theory of decision making. Psychological Bulletin, 41, (1954): 380-417.
Hastie, R. & Dawes, R. Chapter 2, what is Decision Making, in Rational Choice in an Uncertain World. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 2001. Print. 25-46.
Mescon, M. & Bovee, C. & Thill, J. Business Today. 10th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002. Print.
Robbins, Stephen. Essentials of Organizational Behavior. 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002. Print.
Newell, B. & Lagnado, D. & Shanks, D. Chapter 2, Stages of Judgment I: Discovering acquiring and combining information, in Straight choices: the psychology of decision making, New York: Psychology Press, 2007.Print. 25-46
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