This study was undertaken with a view to addressing the fundamental issue of security threats that are robbing organizations of their integrity in the running of the most significant affairs. Security issues have become very fundamental to deal with in the modern day organization particularly propelled with the increased use of modern information and communication technologies. Chapter one presents the problem statement, research objectives, research questions and significance of the study. Chapter two reviews the available literature on security issues. Chapter three presents the methodology and time feasibility. Chapter four deals with the discussions and findings of the research based on the data collected. Chapter five presents the conclusion and recommendations of the study based on the findings.
Security threats vary in both characteristics and magnitudes. One of the types of security threats faced by individuals is unlawful acts perpetrated by other individuals. Technology has lately developed to address this security threat. The most recent technology introduced to address this security threat is surveillance technology (Monahan, 2010). This technology has played a very great part in enhancing security through the prediction of unlawful and catastrophic events. The emergence of the information age after the introduction of computers resulted in other types of security threats. According to Stoneburner, Hayden, & Feringa (2004), one of the security threats that were associated with the emergence of the information age is the loss of essential information by an individual or a company. Several technologies in the form of software systems have been generated to solve this security threat.
Aim of the study
The aim of this study is to analyze the current technologies in place with a view of examining how effective and responsive they can be to the prevailing security scenario.
- To find out if the security technology used to reduce security threats in the current society is effective.
- To investigate the responsiveness of the current technology to the changes
- Is the security technology used to reduce security threats in our current society effective?
- Is the technology responsive to the changes experienced in security threats?
Significance of the study
This study is significant in that it provides information about the success and failure of technology currently used to curb security threats.
The purpose of this literature review is to aid the researcher gain a clear understanding and insight of the problem based on various studies done in the same field or related field. Various scholars have various schools of thoughts and perspectives regarding security threats, the technologies used to address the threats, their effectiveness or failure and whether these technologies respond to the dynamic times and circumstances brought about by the constantly changing field of information and communication technology. This chapter reviews the available literature on this topic and looks at these different perspectives that these scholars have put forward.
Threats to personal security and that of property, information and other equipment have been in existence for a very long time. People have often engaged in criminal activities involving unlawful threats to individuals’ lives. The contemporary society is witnessing a shift in security threats with the continuous development in the field of information and communication technology. Although it has come with various benefits, there are also numerous security challenges that have to be addressed.
It has opened doors to great security risks thereby significantly interfering with the integrity of information and its reliability for use in organizations to make decisions, solve problems and exist in the wider society where information is a fundamental key to human rights and development. Various equipment is in use to address the looming security threats. Their effectiveness and failure form a significant part of this research and consequently this literature review.
As applications become greatly accessible through the web, mobile and cloud devices, they extend over and beyond the perimeter defense. This exposes very significant information to greater risk. Consequently, the discovery of a proactive approach to eliminating these risks is very appropriate for individuals, government departments, societies, and many other organizations to address these security threats. The use of HP fortifies the security center is one of the options to proactively deal with such risks.
Moreover, Security Intelligence and Event Management systems allow information technology experts to discover targeted attacks and monitor the usage of the information technology equipment. Magic Quadrant for intrusion prevention systems gives an effective outline for vendors and what to look for when searching for an IPS. This is also considered a measure to sustaining the security issues related to bad vendors and IPS providers.
Surveillance is also widely used to address security issues. Surveillance is defined as the monitoring of people’s activities, behavior, and changing the information in order to influence, manage, direct, and protect them. It is a very useful method of addressing these security threats as it recognizes and monitors the threats and investigates the criminal activities. It involves the observation from a distance by the use of electronic equipment, for instance, the application and effective use of the CCTV cameras. It also involves intercepting information that is transmitted electronically by the use of equipment such as phone calls or internet traffic.
There are various surveillance technology options that are available for use by many organizations, individual companies, and governments across the globe. These options include but are not limited to the following: there is the use of computer surveillance which is particularly used to monitor data on the internet. The use of telephones can also be used to prevent the issue of information interception thereby guaranteeing the reliability and integrity of the information.
Surveillance cameras can also be used to effectively monitor criminal activities. The modern-day societies and governments have seen millions of surveillance cameras installed across the world. The cameras are monitored by the use of automated computer programs and not humans. This enhances their effectiveness and accuracy while minimizing possible errors that humans can make.
Social networks analysis is another form of surveillance that can help contain the threatening and daily worsening security situations. There is also the biometric surveillance whose purpose is mainly to measure and analyze the human physical and behavioral characteristics for identification, authentication and screening purposes. Aerial surveillance, data mining, and profiling, corporate surveillance have all been used very effectively to help curb security threats.
In addressing these security issues, there are certain areas of concern that individuals, organizational departments and governments should keenly address. They should be able to ascertain how much they are reducing the business risks using the available technological resources. This can be greatly ensured by the implementation of basic risk assessment and management techniques. This can help deliver very fundamental and substantial rewards for the involved organizations and government departments.
Another issue that the organizations ought to significantly look at is a consideration of whether they are protecting the sensitive data that powers the business. There are some data that are very fundamental to the day-to-day running of the business and must be kept safe and effectively protected. The organization ought to be able to know this data and establish effective measures to keep the information safe and out of accessibility by individuals who are not authorized to do so. The organizations need to establish an effective information protection structure to prevent issues of data loss and breaches to the information systems that pose very great risks to the overall performance of the entire organization.
METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN
For this research, a mixed research method was the most appropriate for use. The method like the name suggests involves both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. A major advantage of this research method is that it enabled the researcher to avoid the weaknesses of both quantitative and qualitative research methods while maintaining their advantages (Hall, 2008). This outstanding advantage is what has made this topic to adopt the plan of research method for the proposed research paper.
The quantitative part of the research was undertaken in the form of a survey. According to Mitchell & Jolley (2012), a survey has the capability to collect a lot of information about a sample with diversified characteristics. Therefore, using the survey design, selection of a diversified sample, and selection of data from the sample was assured. The survey would be undertaken to inform of a self-administered questionnaire. According to Cargan (2007), a self-administered questionnaire is applicable to several respondents simultaneously. The research involved several participants.
However, it had a very limited time thus the need for the researcher to collect data simultaneously from all the identified respondents. The qualitative part of the research was undertaken by the identification of participants. Data was then collected from the identified participants using interviews.
This research set to explore the security threats, giving information on the effectiveness of the devices that are currently used to prevent the security threats and whether the technologies ensure better rewards in terms of curbing the threats. It was found out that indeed many organizations are suffering from numerous security threats. Information and communication technologies have been appreciated for the great benefits that they have created in most organizations. They have led to increased productivity of most organizations.
They have also brought about more efficiency and effectiveness with regards to the performance of tasks. What could be performed by several individuals can now be performed by just one computer? The competitive advantages of the organizations that have successfully embraced the technologies have also gone a notch higher. Unfortunately, these technologies have opened new security threats that were never witnessed before. Security issues were initially involving individuals perpetrating unlawful acts such as robbery, murder, and other criminal activities. However, with the continued use of ICTs, fresh security challenges have arisen.
It was found out that most organizations are looking for ways of solving the threats that threaten to crumble their information systems. Now more than ever before, computer viruses, worms, unauthorized access, hacking, cybercrime, and cracking among many other vices have rocked the information systems that are in use by other organizations. The very significant and sensitive data that enable organizations to run have been accessed by malicious individuals.
Consequently, some companies have collapsed; others are on the verge of collapse. This has been a major blow to the whole society. Some of the individuals who have lost their jobs as a result of the collapse of the organizations that employed them have taken to crime, opening way for other security threats. They have to earn a living. Some go to the extent of robbing and killing.
There are several techniques that have been utilized in an attempt to curb these security concerns that are threatening the lives of organizations. For the information systems, issues of restricting access have been greatly emphasized. Organizations have restricted access to information systems to only those who have the authority to do so. Ant viruses have also been put in place to curb the security threats brought about by viruses and other malicious software. There has also been enhanced the use of digital signatures to enhance the integrity of the information that flows in and out of organizations. Laws have come up to curb cyber crimes and other security threats that have rocked the society and organizations at unprecedented rates.
The use of surveillance technology has been very fundamental in addressing security issues. This has been successful both for physical security and information systems security. Many governmental departments and organizations across the globe have used this device to monitor criminal activities of people. There have been many alternatives to surveillance methods that organizations have put in place to contain the security situations.
These techniques have been effective in some way. The enforcement of cyber laws in an attempt to prevent cybercrime has been very effective since it instills fear on the perpetrators. It has helped to curb issues of cracking that have been considered great vices to the running of information systems of a great many organizations. Furthermore, the use of antiviruses has played an increasingly substantial role in dealing with the malicious software thereby ensuring that the data remains relevant, usable and applicable to the effective running of the organization. The use of surveillance technology has been very effective in curbing both the societal physical threats and those threats that involve the information systems in organizations. The use of CCTV, for example, has made it possible to monitor criminal activities of people, bringing them to book and ensuring that justice prevails for the victims and against the perpetrators.
However, there have also been significant failures on part of these technologies and systems that have been put in place to curb the security threats. Information and communication technologies continue to change and develop at very unprecedented rates. Technologies used to curb security threats today may not be applicable tomorrow. This explains why the antiviruses must be constantly updated to guarantee their effectiveness. Many countries have come up with laws protecting information systems and preventing cybercrime. Unfortunately, most of these laws have not been enforced effectively.
There has not been goodwill on part of the governments to enforce these laws and help individuals and organizations out of this bad situation. The surveillance technologies have also come with new challenges making their use challenged in many parts of the globe. While some people support the technologies, others have reserved support arguing that nothing can be done to curb them. The surveillance technologies have therefore faced opposition from certain quarters especially from those who are cynical and pessimistic about its usage. Surveillance also inflicts certain negative psychological effects. It makes individuals feel like they are always being watched. This has led to its failure. Moreover, it has been argued that surveillance technologies lead to a breach of individuals’ right to privacy. This is considered a very fundamental right. As such, its success has been dwindling.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
As long as people continue to live, there will always be security threats. With more and more inventions and advancements in the field of information and communication technologies, the advancement of security threats is also realized. It is, therefore, an initiative of every individual, organization, and government to ensure that its information systems are very secure. While determining the kind of technologies to put in place to curb the security threats, the merits and demerits of such systems should be the driving forces in making the choices. The system ought to guarantee the security of both the individuals and the organizational data.
Based on the findings of this research, it is recommended that cyber laws be strengthened and enforced to curb security threats. There should be even more stringent and stern measures against the perpetrators of cybercrime. Individuals should also be enlightened on the importance of security to minimize possible opposition and ensure support for the technologies. Organizations also need to back up their sensitive and significant data. Organizations need to give the first priority to the security of the information systems so that these vices do not slip undetected. Security threats should be rendered a thing of the past. All the parties involved in ensuring the security of individuals, data and information should continuously take a proactive role in ensuring that these issues are addressed effectively.
Corgan, L. (2007). Doing Social Research. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Ltd.
Hall, R. (2008). Applied Social Research: Planning, Designing, and Conducting Real-World Research. Sydney: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd.
Mitchell, M. L., & Jolley, J. M. (2012). Research Design Explained. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning Ltd.
Monahan, T. (2010). Surveillance in the Time of Insecurity. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Stoneburner, G., Hayden, C., & Feringa, A. (2004). Engineering Principles for Information Technology Security (A Baseline for Achieving Security), Revision A. Retrieved from http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-27A/SP800-27-RevA.pdf. On 4 October 2012.
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